Below is a transcript of Pierre Elliott Trudeau’s official biography (circa 1976), produced and distributed by the Liberal Party. Whoever reads Lubor Zink’s Trudeaucracy and Viva Chairman Trudeau, should read this bio, and vice versa.
The Right Honourable Pierre Elliott Trudeau
The Liberal Party of Canada
(All or part of this biography may
be reprinted without permission.)
|Part I: Biographical Outline|
|Early Years||Born October 18, 1919, Montreal, Quebec, second child of Charles Emil-Trudeau and Grace Elliott. Attended public schools and collegiate institutes in Montreal, Quebec.|
|Education||Graduated 1940 from Jean de Brébeuf College in Montreal, with BA Honors standing. Studied law at the University of Montreal, graduated with Honors and was called to the Bar of the Province of Quebec in 1943. Received his Master of Arts in political economy from Harvard University in 1945. Followed this with several years of post-graduate studies in law, economics and political science at the École des Sciences politiques in Paris and the London School of Economics.|
|Career||Joined the Privy Council in Ottawa as desk officer in 1949.|
|In 1951, practised law, specializing in labor law and civil liberties cases, in the Province of Quebec.|
|At the same time, cofounded and codirected the monthly publication of a review entitled Cité Libre.|
|In 1961, appointed Associate Professor of Law at the University of Montreal where he taught constitutional law,civil liberties and carried out research while on the staff of the Institut de Recherches en Droit Public.|
|Elected to the House of Commons for the constituency ofMount Royal in 1965.|
|Appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Right Honorable Lester B. Pearson in January 1966 and reappointed to this post in January 1967.|
|On April 4, 1967, appointed Minister of Justice andAttorney General of Canada.|
|Elected Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada at the Leadership Convention in Ottawa on April 6, 1968.|
|Sworn in as Prime Minister of Canada on April 20, 1968.|
|Of Special Note||As a critic of the social and political scene in Canada,wrote extensively during the 1950s on reform in politics and the theory and practice of federalism.|
|One of the founders of Cité Libre which became one of the most influential forces for reform in Quebec during the 1950s and 1960s.|
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|As a Member of Parliament, served on the Justice and Legal Affairs, External Affairs, Broadcasting and Assistance to the Arts, and Divorce Committees.|
|As Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, introduced fundamental amendments to the Criminal Code in Parliament; piloted a major divorce reform bill through Parliament; and played a major role in obtaining French language rights and in helping to clarify the federal government’s position on constitutional matters.|
|Delegate to the France-Canada Interparliamentary Association meetings in Paris, April 1966; represented Canada at the21st Session of the United Nations General Assembly fromSeptember to December 1966; on behalf of the Prime Minister of Canada and the Secretary of State for External Affairs,
made a tour of French speaking African States in February of 1967, to determine the role Canada should play in theformation of an association of French speaking states.
|Member of several professional associations and learned societies including the Bars of the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario and the Royal Society of Canada. Founding member of the Montreal Civil Liberties Union.|
|Honors||Received the following honorary degrees: Doctor of Laws,University of Alberta, May 13, 1968; Doctor of Laws,Queen’s University, Kingston, November 1968; Doctor of Letters, University of Moncton, May 1969; Doctor of Laws, University of Ottawa, April 1974; Doctor of Laws, Duke University, North Carolina, May 12, 1974.|
|Marriage||Married Margaret Sinclair of Vancouver on March 4, 1971 in North Vancouver. Three sons: Justin Pierre James, born December 25, 1971; Alexandre Emmanuel (Sasha), born December 25, 1973; and Michel Charles-Emile, born October 2, 1975.|
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|Part II: Biography|
|The characteristics and qualities that combine to carry one man to the peaks of success are not easily defined or enumerated. It is even more difficult to pinpoint the motivating force which propell [sic] those qualities to their successful conclusion.|
|Such is the case when the man in question is Pierre Elliott Trudeau. As John T. Saywell neatly expressed in his Introduction to Federalism and the FrenchCanadians (P.E. Trudeau, Toronto: The Macmillan Co. of Canada Ltd., 1968):|
|“To many people, Pierre Elliott Trudeau seemed enigmatic andparadoxical: a man of substantial wealth, yet a democratic socialist … a French Canadian proud of his identity and culture, yet a biting critic of French Canadian society … a man who combines a quiet independence of mind with a strong socially oriented sense of purpose.”|
|The late André Laurendeau, cochairman of the Bilingualism and BiculturalismCommission, summed up the man by saying: “It is his taste for freedom. Hedemands its risks and its advantages”. And perhaps this is the key, for the man terms himself a “pragmatic idealist”; a follower of that sort of freedom which finds its essential strength in a sense of balance and proportion. It was with this in mind that, long before he had any real thoughts of becoming Prime Minister of Canada, he urged Canadians to realize that:|
|“The time has come to borrow from the architect that discipline that he calls ‘functional’, to throw out the thousand prejudices with which the past burdens the present and to build for the new man. Let us cast down the totems, break the taboos. Or, better, let us consider them void. Dispassionately, let us be intelligent.”|
|That was Trudeau the political philosopher speaking; but Trudeau as student or world traveller, sportsman or professor, author or reformer, has always said the same thing. The eventful life of Pierre Elliott Trudeau exemplifies a constant search for that balance of liberty, progress and order which will best serve the needs of the individual and society.|
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|The Formative Years|
|Long before bilingualism and biculturalism became the paramount concerns of a federal commission, the two were strongly upheld in a comfortable home on McCulloch Street in Outremont, Montreal. Into this two-culture environment Pierre Trudeau was born on October 18, 1919. He was the second of three children and the first son.|
|Charles-Emil, his French Canadian father, was a lawyer by profession who earlydirected his talents into business. His mother, the former Grace Elliott, had a Scottish father and a French Canadian mother. The three children ― Pierre, his younger brother Charles, and his older sister Suzette ― became familiar with both French and English at an early age.|
|And it was a closely-knit family: Father Trudeau used to drop whatever he was doing in the late afternoon of each day, to go home to see his children; there were the Sunday evening “record sessions” as well, and innumerable weekends when the family would drive up to the Lac Tremblant area to hunt and fish.|
|Even in his early years, it was difficult to not take notice of Pierre Trudeau. At the Querbes Primary School in Montreal, teachers and classmates remember him as a headstrong individualist who involved himself rather frequently in fights and practical jokes ― but, as a hard-working student to boot, who was nearly always at the top of his class.|
|After graduation, it was off to Jean de Brébeuf, a Jesuit classical collegewhich was and still is one of Quebec’s best schools. Again, an insatiable thirst for learning invariably placed him at the top of his class.|
|In 1940 he entered the University of Montreal to undertake his law studies. As a student he enlisted with the Canadian Officer Training Corps (COTC) during the war and later, with the Fusiliers de Mont-Royal where he completed his training.|
|A law degree with honors and subsequent admission to the Bar Association of the Province of Quebec ended his Quebec education in 1944 and, from that time until the early 1950s, he was almost constantly away from home.|
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|The years between were eventful ones for P.E. Trudeau. Between 1944 and 1946,he attended Harvard “… to know more about the organization of society … to know the laws of the economy, of monetary systems and banks and to study political science … to find out how governments work.” It was while studying for an MA at this university that he first recognized the deficiency of Quebec’s educational system. “I realized we were being taught law as a trade in Quebec, not as a discipline. The majors in political science there (Harvard) had read more about Roman law and Montesquieu than I had as a lawyer.”|
|Political economy and economic theory were absorbing enough to propel him on tothe École des Sciences politiques and the law faculty of the Sorbonne in Paris, to complement his MA from Harvard with post-graduate work in law, economics and political science. Even at this time, Gérard Pelletier, who was then with a student relief organization in Geneva, remarked that Pierre Trudeau was:|
|“… a fund of knowledge on Canada … he could reel off the historyof the railways or quote from any given speech by Sir John A.Macdonald.”|
|Finally, at the London School of Economics, he absorbed the brilliant lecturesof Harold Laski and immersed himself in Lord Acton’s History of Freedom andOther Essays. In 1948 he left London, for 15 months of solitary adventure.|
|With only a knapsack on his back, he trekked through occupied Germany andAustria; and into Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia. From Belgrade, he made hisway to Turkey and, by boarding a truck filled with Arab irregulars, was able to penetrate Palestine just before partition. Occasionally reporting his travels for Le Devoir, he pushed on to Pakistan and India, sojourning wherever possible with university students.|
|His studies and his travels reinforced his basic distrust of nationalism. In his later stand against separatism in Quebec, he was quoted as saying:|
|“I am against any policy that is based on race or religion. Any such policy is reactionary policy, and for the past 150 years, nationalism has been a retrograde idea. By an historic accident, Canada has found itself approximately 75 years ahead of the rest of the world in the formation of a multinational state and I happen to believe that the hope of mankind lies in multiculturalism.”|
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|The Duplessis Years|
|When he returned to Canada in 1949, Pierre Elliott Trudeau’s objective was to teach political theory in a university. Disappointingly, no post was open and, as an alternative, he became employed with the Privy Council in Ottawa. His three years there stood him in good stead when he returned in 1965 to make his debut as a Member of Parliament.|
|But young Trudeau had also returned from Europe to the stirrings of revolutionin his home province. Under Premier Duplessis’ direction, 5,000 miners were putdown by provincial police after the Asbestos strike of 1949.|
|For reformers like Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Gérard Pelletier and Jean Marchand,the incident was seen as the product of an obsolete regime and one demanding corrective action.|
|The following year was a significant one for the team. In launching their monthly review Cité Libre, it marked the beginning of a new Quebec. For, in spite of a limited circulation, Cité Libre was instrumental in turning liberal and progressive forces in Quebec against the Union Nationale regime of Maurice Duplessis.
Through most of the 1950s, it maintained an avant garde position in saying things others dared not say about politics and society in Quebec.
|Late in 1951, economist Trudeau gave up a promising federal career to devote more time to his publicatoin and, above all, to the situation in Quebec. The next year he was honored with an invitation to attend an international economic conference in Moscow. After he returned, a book of essays entitled La Grève de L’Amiante was put together under his direction, and in a masterful background chapter, he proceeded to show how social and economic thought in Quebec had failed to keep pace with the realities of a modern society. In the epilogue, he suggested that:|
|“If, in the last analysis, we continually identify Catholicism with conservatism and patriotism with immobility, we will lose by default that which is at play between all cultures … An entire generation is hesitating at the brink of commitment.”|
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|The book appeared in the provincial election year of 1956, the last year Duplessis won a term of office. As the term drew to a close, Mr. Trudeau issued an appeal to the readers of Cité Libre to support the Liberals in the provincial election of 1960. With the Liberal victory, the democratic and social revolution seemed underway. [Emphases added.]|
|For the next few years, Pierre Elliott Trudeau played a minor role in the renovation he had helped to bring about. The University of Montreal in 1961 gave him a position as an associate professor of constitutional law. He even found time to polish his skiing (having once been intercollegiate champion at the University of Montreal), to take up flying and scuba diving and to disappear on long voyageur-like canoe expeditions. The latter was a favorite pastime and, as an expert canoeist and woodsman, he has over the years built a fund of knowledge on the Canadian wilderness. As late as 1966, he paddled a distance of 400 miles down the Coppermine River to the Arctic Ocean.|
|Time was found for a return trip to Mainland China in 1960 and the observations he made were compiled into Deux Innocents En Chine, published the following year.|
|But it was not only a movement for political and social reform that had been generated during the ferment of the 1950s. New currents of nationalism had also been released. Amid the tempest in Quebec, where few dared challenge the new nationalism or oppose separatism outright, Mr. Trudeau rowed boldly against the current. In “L’Aliénation nationaliste” (Cité Libre, March 1961) Pierre Elliott Trudeau dismissed the nationalists as reactionary, and nationalism as irrelevant to the major concerns of Quebec:|
|“I do not think that dynamite in a country that enjoys freedom ofspeech can be considered a sign of rational progress.”|
|Back on the Hill|
|The reputation of Pierre Elliott Trudeau acquired during this time, for consistently and courageously upholding democracy and a healthy federalism, spread beyond Quebec and won him the admiration of many and an intense, personal following
of a kind that he had never known before.
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|In late 1962 private discussions were already underway to establish him in the federal Liberal Party; but not until 1965 did the Trudeau-Marchand-Pelletier team run for the Pearson administration.|
|The rest of his political career is well known to all. After contesting and winning election to Parliament in 1965 from the Montreal constituency of Mount Royal, he became Parliamentary Secretary to the Prime Minister, serving on such committees as Justice and Legal Affairs, External Affairs, Broadcasting and Assistance to the Arts, and Divorce.|
|On April 4, 1967, he was given the senior portfolio of Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada. An eventful year followed for Mr. Trudeau. Massive, fundamental amendments to the Criminal Code were introduced in Parliament. He brilliantly piloted through Parliament a major divorce reform bill, and he played a major role in obtaining agreement on French language rights and in helping to clarify the federal government’s position on constitutional matters.|
|To Liberal delegates across Canada, he represented progress and change and, on April 6, 1968, at the Liberal Convention in Ottawa, was their choice for Leader. He said then:|
|“I believe that as Liberals, it’s our duty not to try and conserve everything and every tradition of the past or every pat solution or every doctrine which was applied in the past.
“I’m a Liberal because I believe we must experiment with our times and risk some solutions which may not be comfortable but which are necessary to put us into the world of tomorrow instead of staying in the world of yesterday.”
|On April 20, 1968, he was sworn in as Prime Minister and he moved promptly toseek a new mandate from the Canadian people. In the General Election on June 25th,voters gave his government a conclusive majority with 155 of the 264 seats.|
|The outstanding characteristic of Prime Minister Trudeau’s first term in officewas change and innovation. Many of these changes involved governmental andparliamentary processes in an attempt to make them speedier, more methodical, and less vulnerable to unexpected pressures or events.|
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|Other of the Prime Minister’s policies were highly visible, however. Among these were measures taken to strengthen national unity which concerned Mr. Trudeau deeply. Parliament approved an Official Languages Act, a policy of multiculturalism was developed, and the Department of Regional Economic Expansion was established to lead the fight against regional disparities within the country. In the pursuit of greater social justice in Canada important advancements were made for native peoples, for women, for those with low and fixed incomes, and in the area of law reform.|
|In world affairs the recognition of the People’s Republic of China, the improve-ment in relations with the USSR, Mr. Trudeau’s instrumental role at the 1971Commonwealth Conference in preventing the break-up of that important body, and the extension of jurisdiction over the Arctic as a means of preventing pollution, illustrated Canada’s desire to pursue a policy of progress and understanding.|
|The term was also highlighted by strong leadership and swift action in meeting two major crises: the FLQ threat in October 1970, and the effect of the United States economic policies in the late fall of 1971.|
|In the General Election of October 30, 1972, Canadians elected their fifth minority government since 1957. Mr. Trudeau was again elected Member of Parliament for Mount Royal and, with his colleagues, prepared to meet Parliament and seek the confidence of the House of Commons to deal with issues of national concern. On January 4, 1973, in the Speech from the Throne opening the 29th Parliament, the government with Mr. Trudeau as Prime Minister outlined major initiatives in the areas of economic and social policy.|
|Another major initiative undertaken by Prime Minister during the 29th Parliament was the calling of the Western Economic Opportunities Conference in July 1973 at Calgary. This conference, unprecedented in that it was the first time that a Prime Minister and Premiers from a specific region had met to focus on problems of that region as a whole, resulted in many federal government commitments (on transportation, resource development, prairie agriculture, to name only a few) which will be of great benefit to the Western economy.|
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|In August Canada was host to the 1973 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting. All Commonwealth countries were represented and Mr. Trudeau was warmly praised for the positive tone and constructive approach of the meeting, which once again demonstrated the vitality and flexibility of the Commonwealth.|
|The Prime Minister’s historic visit to China in October 1973 established a new level of understanding between the two nations and their leaders. From this will flow benefits for all concerned in terms of international relations and peace, in terms of trade, science and technology, in cultural terms and in terms of human relations.|
|On May 8, 1974 the combined Opposition of the Progressive Conservatives and the New Democratic parties defeated the minority Liberal government 137-123 on an NDP motion of non-confidence in the budget which had been presented two days earlier. A general election was called for July 8. Mr. Trudeau conducted a vigorous election campaign throughout the country and was returned at the head of a majority Liberal government with 141 seats.|
|The 30th Parliament began sitting on September 30, 1974. The first two years of the mandate was [sic] dominated by the battle against inflation, which was running high in all countries of the world. Several actions were taken by the Trudeau government, including controls on rising prices and incomes, and measures to protect individuals particularly hard hit by inflation.|
|An area which has always concerned Mr. Trudeau is human rights. Under his leadership, the 30th Parliament passed a Human Rights Act, giving Canadians greater protection against discrimination, and establishing a Human Rights Commission to act as a watchdog. The Trudeau government also presented a peace and security program in two bills: one to abolish capital punishment and an omnibus bill directed at crime prevention, both of which were passed.|
|In November 1976, the province of Quebec elected its first separatist government. National unity became a deep concern for most Canadians, as it has always beenfor Mr. Trudeau. In June 1978 he introduced a Constitutional Amendment Bill in the House of Commons, as a proposed new Constitution. It contained measures to renew federal institutions, and the establishment of a Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms within the Constitution. [Emphases added.]|
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|Part III: Published Writings
“Politique fonctionnelle I”, CITE LIBRE, 1 (juin 1950).
“Politique fonctionnelle II”, ITE LIBRE, 2 (1951).
“Je reviens de Moscou”, LE DEVOIR, 14-21 juin, 1952.
“Réflexions sur la politique au Canada français”, CITE LIBRE, 6 (déc. 1952), 53-66.
“Matériaux pour servir à une enquête sur le cléricalisme (I),” CITE LIBRE, 7 (mai 1953), 29-37.
“L’élection fédérale du 10 août 1953: prodromes et conjectures”,
CITE LIBRE, 8 (nov. 1953), 1-10.
“De libro, tributo et qui bus dam aliis”, CITE LIBRE, 10 (oct. 1954), 1-16.
“Obstacles à la démocratie”, INSTITUT CANADIEN DES AFFAIRES PUBLIQUES, 1954, p. 36.
(sous la direction de) LA GREVE DE L’AMIANTE, (Montréal: Edition CITE LIBRE, 1956), esp. “Introduction: Québec au sommet de la grève”, “Epilogue”.
“Les octrois fédéraux aux universités”, CITE LIBRE, 16 (fév. 1957), 9-31.
“A propos de ‘domination économique’”, CITE LIBRE, 20 (mai 1958).
“Some obstacles to democracy in Quebec” CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & POLITICAL SCIENCE XXIV, 3 (Aug. 1958), 297-311; reproduced in Mason Wade (ed) CANADIAN DUALISM/LA DUALITE CANADIENNE (Toronto/Québec: Univ. of Toronto Press/ Les presses de l’Université Laval, 1960), pp. 241-59.
“Un manifeste démocratique”, CITE LIBRE, 22 (oct. 1958), 1-31
|Le père Cousineau, s.j., et LA GREVE DE L’AMIANTE; “Critique d’une critique”, CITE LIBRE, 23 (mai 1959), 34-48.
“Mauvaise foi et bonne conscience”, CITE LIBRE, 24 (jan./fév. 1960), 25-6. (nouvelle série).
“Leçon de science politique dans un parc qu’il s’agissait de préserver”, CITE LIBRE, 25 (mars 1960), 15-6.
“Diefenbaker monte en ballon”, CITE LIBRE, 26 (avr. 1960), 15-6.
“De la notion de l’opposition politique”, CITE LIBRE, 28 (juin/juillet 1960), 12-3.
“Notes sur l’élection provinciale”, CITE LIBRE, 28 (juin/juillet 1960), 12-3. [Emphasis added.]
“L’élection du 22 juin”, CITE LIBRE, 29 (août/sept. 1960), 3-8.
“De nouveau, la carte d’identité”, CITE LIBRE, 33 (janv. 1961), 17-8.
“A l’ouest rien de nouveau”, CITE LIBRE, 34 (fév. 1961) 8-9.
“L’aliénation nationaliste”, CITE LIBRE, 35 (mars 1961), 3-5.
“De l’inconvénient d’être catholique” CITE LIBRE, 20-1.
“Notes sur le parti cléricaliste” CITE LIBRE, 38 (juin-juillet 1961), 23.
“La guerre! la guerre!”, CITE LIBRE, 42 (déc. 1961), 1-3.
(avec Jacques Hébert) DEUX INNOCENTS EN CHINE, (Montréal: les Editions de L’Homme, 1961).
“Federalism in Theory and Practice” in Michael Oliver (ed), SOCIAL PURPOSE FOR CANADA, (Toronto: U. of T. Press, 1961).
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|“La nouvelle trahison des clercs”, CITE LIBRE, 46 (avr. 1962), 3-16; parts translated in (a) CANADIAN FORUM (“Multi-Racial State in Canada”), XLII (June 1962) 52-4, and (b) F. R. SCOTT & Macmillan, 1964), 57-69.“Les progres de l’illusion”, CITE LIBRE 47 (mai 1962), 1-2.
(discussion avec Lévesque, Scott, etc.) “Faut-il refaire la confederation? ”, le magazine MACLEAN, juin 1962, pages 17-19 et pages 63-68.
“A propos des élections du 18 juin: notes sur la conjoncture politique”, CITE LIBRE, 49 (août/sept. 1962), 1-4.
“L’homme de gauche et les élections provinciales (I) ”, CITE LIBRE, 51 (nov. 1962), 3-5.
Review of McWhinney Comparative Federalism in REVUE DE NOTARIAT.
“Pearson ou l’abdication de l’esprit”, CITE LIBRE, 56 (avr. 1964), 7-12.
“We need a bill of rights”, MACLEAN’S Magazine, Feb. 8 1964, pages 24-25.
“Les séparatistes: des contre-révolutionnaires”, CITE LIBRE, 67 (mai 1964), 2-6; translated in CANADIAN FORUM (“Québec Neo-Fascism”), XLIV (July 1964).
(avec Albert Breton, Raymond Breton, Claude Bruneau, Yvon Gauthier, Marc Lalonde & Maurice Pinard) “Manifeste pour une politique fonctionnelle”, CITE LIBRE, 67 (mai 1964), 11-7 published simultaneously in translation in CANADIAN FORUM XLIV (“An Appeal for Realism in Canadian Politics”) XLIV (May 1964); reproduced in THE MONTREAL STAR, May 14, 1964, 9-10
(avec Breton et al) “L’agriculture au Québec”, CITE LIBRE, 78 (juillet 1965), 9-16.
“Pelletier et Trudeau s’expliquent”, CITE LIBRE, 80 (oct. 1965, 3-5.
|“Federalism, Nationalism and Reason”, inP-A Crépeau & C.B. MacPherson, (eds),THE FUTURE OF CANADIAN FEDERALISM, (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press-Montréal. Les presses de l’Université de Montréal, 1965), pp. 16-35
“Le réalisme constitutionnel” (Discours présenté le 26 mars 1966 au congrès de la Fédération libérale du Canada (Section Québec); parts translated in Paul Fox (en POLITICS: CANADA (Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1966 – rev. ed)
“Le Québec est-il assiégé?”, CITE LIBRE, 86 (avr./mai 1966), 7-10.
FEDERALISM AND THE FRENCH CANADIANS (Toronto: MacMillan Co. of Canada, Ltd./ Montréal: Les Editions HMH, 1968).
REPONSES (Montréal: Editions du Jour, Inc., 1968).
APPROACHES TO POLITICS. (Introd. by Ramsay Cook. Prefatory note by Jacques Hébert. Translated by I.M. Own). Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1970, 89 p. (translation of: Les cheminements de la politique).
LES CHEMINEMENTS DE LA POLITIQUE. Montréal, Editions du jour, 1970. 142 p. (Coll. Les idées du jour, D-55).
(with Jacques Hébert) TWO INNOCENTS IN
RED CHINA (Translated by I.M. Owen). Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1968. (translation of: Deux Innocents en Chine)
CONVERSATION WITH CANADIANS (Foreword by Ivan L. Head) University of Toronto Press, 1972
TRUDEAU EN DIRECT Montréal, Editions du Jour, 1972
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– THE END OF TRUDEAU’S BIOGRAPHY –
In his article, “Notes on the Provincial Election” (Cité Libre, Volume 11, Number 28, June-July 1960, p. 12), Pierre Elliott Trudeau urged the readers of Cité Libre to vote for the Quebec Liberals in 1960. Jean Lesage was leader of the Québec Liberals at that time. Communist René Lévesque was on Lesage’s “Team of Thunder”. In 1966, the voters threw these Liberals out; however, in the 1972 manifesto of the Parti Québécois calling for a Communist state of Quebec, with “worker self-management” on the model of Communist Yugoslavia (SFRY) (see that discussion in my exclusive CBC Radio-Canada transcript), we first learn that in 1961, the government of Quebec made its first attempt to construct a Communist Plan to run the Province. See pages 101-103 in particular of Quand nous serons vraiment chez nous (English: When We Will Truly Be At Home – see the Free Downloads tab, top menu, for the whole manifesto in English).
The 1972 PQ manifesto therefore allows us to connect the Communist penetration of Quebec to the Lesage Liberals of 1960; and to Pierre Elliott Trudeau personally, who in Cité Libre vol. no. 28, urged his leftist readers to vote for Lesage … on the pretext that the Liberals alone of all the parties had been willing to form a coalition to throw out Maurice Duplessis and the Union Nationale party. This, said Trudeau, was the “watchword”: “Democracy first!”
With his alleged concern for “democracy” (whatever that means to the Left, because it doesn’t mean the same thing as in Canada’s lawful Parliamentary democracy), Trudeau was able to point the left towards the party that he absolutely had to know intended to attempt a Communist economic plan for Quebec. My exclusive English translation of Trudeau’s June 1960 article in Cité Libre is also enclosed in the zip folder with the copy of Trudeau’s official “Liberal” biography circa 1976. Admin.